- Other Names
- VEGFA, MVCD1, VEGF, Vascular permeability factor (VPF)
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- Product Citations
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VEGF (known also as VEGFA) was initially identified in conditioned medium from bovine pituitary follicular cells. VEGFA belongs to the VEGF family, which has the following members: VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C (VEGF-2), VEGF-D, and PlGF (placental growth factor). In addition, viral VEGF homologs (collectively called VEGF-E) and snake venom VEGFs, such as T.f. (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) and svVEGF (called VEGF-F), have been described. VEGFA is alternatively spliced to generate variants with different numbers of amino acids, such as VEGFA120, VEGFA144, VEGFA164, and VEGFA188. VEGFA164 is predominant and responsible for VEGFA biological potency.
While VEGF120 is freely diffusible and does not bind to neuropilins (NRPs) or heparan sulphate (HS), VEGF164 and VEGF187 bind to both, resulting in retention on the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix. NRP1 lacks a typical kinase domain and acts as a co-receptor, and in response to VEGF164, NRP1 couples with VEGF-Rs to signal in endothelial cells. In addition, it has been suggested that bone marrow cells that are recruited to Ewing’s tumors are differentiated into vascular smooth muscle cells, and VEGF164 is responsible for this differentiation.
VEGFA is highly expressed in most of the solid tumors generated in breast, lung, renal, colorectal, and liver tissues. VEGFA has strong vascular permeability activity, and significantly contributes to the formation of ascites tumors. VEGFA can act as a direct proinflammatory mediator during the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and protect rheumatoid synoviocytes from apoptosis, which contributes to synovial hyperplasia. VEGFA is expressed in synovial macrophages and synovial fibroblasts in RA patients. Also, VEGFA is associated to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is due to neovascularization that originates from endothelial cells in the choroid that grow into neurosensory retina as choroidal neovascularization (CNV).
- Mouse VEGF-164, amino acids Ala27-Arg190 (Accession# NM_009505.4), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 165 amino acid N-terminal methionylated recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of 19.4 kD. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met. Recombinant Mouse VEGF164 is a disulfide bond linked homodimer.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE and HPLC analysis.
- Lyophilized, carrier-free.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg of protein.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer, such as 5% Trehalose, and store working aliquots at -20°C to -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 is between 1.0 - 5.0 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.2 - 1.0 x 106 units/mg as determined by the dose-dependent stimulation of the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).
- Widely expressed.
- VEGFA is a key player in vasculogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from progenitor cells, as well as angiogenesis. The expression of the VEGFA gene is upregulated via hypoxia, estrogen, and NF-κB pathways. In addition, VEGFA is upregulated by PDGF-BB, P1GF, TGF-β1, IGF1, FGFs, HGF, TNFα, and IL-1. VEGFA induces proliferation and cell migration in endothelial cells, and plays important roles during wound healing. Also, VEGFA regulates hematopoietic stem cell survival.
- VEGFA interacts with vascular endothelial cells and monocytes and macrophages, which express VEGFR1. This interaction induces proliferation of endothelial cells and stimulates migration of monocytes and macrophages.
- VEGFA binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1).
- Mouse VEGF-164 is able to induce proliferation of HUVEC cells.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Synaptic Biology, Angiogenesis
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Conn G, et al. 1990. P. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 87:1323.
2. Gerber H, et al. 2002. Nature 417:954.
3. Shibuya M, et al. 2006. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 39:469.
4. Shibuya M, et al. 2008. BMB Rep. 41:278.
5. Monaghan-Benson E, et al. 2010. The American Journal of Pathology 177:2091.
6. Koch S and Claesson-Welsh L. 2012. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2:a006502.
- Gene ID
- 22339 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about VEGF-A on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.