- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), PAI, PLANH1
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- Product Citations
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PAI-1 was initially purified from bovine aortic endothelial cell culture. It is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitors (serpin) superfamily, which is divided into two groups: the inhibitory and non inhibitory serpins. PAI-1 is a globular protein that contains 3 beta-sheets and 9 alpha-helices. It possesses an exposed peptide loop and a reactive center loop (RCL), which is critical for the inhibitory mechanism. PAI-1 is the most important physiological inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Therefore, PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of the process that produces the broad-spectrum serine protease plasmin from the zymogen plasminogen, and thus is the key regulator of the fibrinolytic system. PAI-1 forms a covalent bond with both t-PA and u-PA (1:1 molar ratio). It is known that several receptors (uPAR, LRP-1A, megalin, VLDLR, and LRP-1B) bind and mediate endocytosis of plasminogen activator - PAI-1 complexes. PAI-1 is present in blood and the extracellular matrix in a complex with vitronectin. Elevated PAI-1 levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). High levels of plasma PAI-1 in patients precede MI. Abnormal levels of PAI-1 are associated to metabolic syndrome, obesity, MI, obstructive nephropathy, cancer, cardiac fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and bleeding thrombosis.Product Details
- Human Serpin E1, amino acids (Val24-Pro402) (Accession# P05121.1), was expressed in insect cells. The amino terminal contains a 10His-tag.
- Molecular Mass
- The 389 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 44.1 kD. The protein migrates at approximately 50 kD in both DTT-reducing and non-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Val.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in 20 mM Sodium Acetate, 0.5 M NaCl, and 30% glycerol in pH 5.5.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 1.0 EU per µg of cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- IC50< 11.0 nM, as determined by inhibiting human u-PA (100 ng/mL) activity when 100 µM of N-carbobenzyloxy-Gly-Gly-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin is used as u-PA peptide substrate.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
PAI-1 is present in blood and extracellular matrix. It is produced by the liver, spleen, adipocytes, hepatocytes, platelets, megakaryocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, placenta, and endothelial cells.
- Inhibits plasminogen activators and regulates the fibrinolytic system. PAI production is induced by dexamethasone, LPS, thrombin, IL-1, TNF, insulin, VLDL, LDL, and lipoprotein.
- Endothelial cells.
- t-PA, u-PA, and vitronectin.
- Biology Area
- Neuroscience, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Enzymes and Regulators
- Antigen References
1. van Mourik, et al. 1984. J. Biol. Chem. 259:14914.
2. Zhou A, et al. 2003. Nat. Struct. Biol. 10:541.
3. Tsantes AE, et al. 2008. Thromb. Res. 122:736.
4. Dupon DM, et al. 2009. Front Biosciences 14:1337.
5. Ploplis VA. 2011. Curr. Drug Targets. 12:1782.
6. Yasar Yildiz S, et al. 2014. Scientific World Journal 858293.
- Gene ID
- 5054 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Serpin E1 on UniProt.org
- Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?
• Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
• Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
• 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
• Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
• Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
• Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)