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Human betacellulin was initially cloned from a cDNA library from human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. It belongs to the EGF family of proteins that includes EGF, TGF-α, heparin-binding EGF like-growth factor (HB-EGF), epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, neuroregulin, and tomoregulin. All EGF family members are synthesized as type I membrane protein precursors, which can undergo proteolytic cleavage at the plasma membrane to release a mature soluble ectodomain. ADAM10 seems to be the main releasing enzyme for betacellulin and EGF. Human betacellulin precursor protein exhibits 79% similarity with the mouse precursor at the amino acid level. The expression of betacellulin mRNA is high in pancreas, liver, kidney, and small intestine. Betacellulin induces the proliferation of endocrine precursor cells in pancreas, a fetal pancreatic epithelial cell line, and a rat insulinoma cell line. In addition, betacellulin induces proliferation and regeneration of pancreatic beta cells in diabetic mice, a process that is linked to the transcription of homeobox-1 and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2. These genes are involved in beta cell proliferation. Betacellulin binds not only to the EGFR, it binds and activates all possible heterodimeric combinations of the related ErbB receptors including the highly oncogenic ErbB2/3 dimer and homodimers of ErbB4. Betacellulin is expressed in lung cancer cells, hepatocellular carcinoma, and head-and-neck squamous carcinoma cells among others, and it is associated with tumor growth progression, angiogenesis, and invasiveness.Product Details
- Human Betacellulin, amino acids ( Asp32-Tyr111) (Accession# NM_001729), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 80 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 8.9 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 13 -15 kD by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Asp.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10-100 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 500 µg and larger sizes are bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 0.03 - 0.18 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 5.5 - 33.3 x 106 units/mg, as determined by induction of BALB/3T3 cell proliferation.
- Application Notes
This product is reactive with human and mouse.
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Widely expressed in most tissues and various body fluids, including milk. Expressed in smooth muscle, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells. Highly expressed in pancreas.
- Betacellulin induces proliferation of beta cells, pancreatic endocrine precursor cells, and neural stem cells. Betacellulin, amphiregulin, and epirgulin stimulate oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion and its expression is induced by LH.
- Pancreas endocrine precursor cells, beta cells, fetal pancreatic epithelial cell line, smooth muscle cells, and neuronal stem cells.
- ErbB-1 and ErbB-4 homodimers and heterodimeric ErbB receptors.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Sasada R, et al.1993. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 190:1173.
2. Dunbar AJ, Goddard C, 2000. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 32:805.
3. Sahin U, et al. 2004. J. Cell Biol. 164:769.
4. O-charoenrat P, et al. 2004. Int. J. Cancer 111:174.
5. Hsieh M, et al. 2009. Semin. Reprod. Med. 27:52.
6. Stoeck A, et al. 2010. J. Cell Sci. 123:2319.
7. Oh YS, et al. 2011. PLoS One 6:e23894.
8. Gomez-Gaviro MV, et al. 2012. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109:1317.
9. Dahlhoff M, et al. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol.
- Gene ID
- 685 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Betacellulin on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.