- Other Names
- TL6, AITRL, GITRL, GITR Ligand, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Member 18
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- Product Citations
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TNFSF18 is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the TNF superfamily. This protein is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC) including macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and endothelial cells. Its expression increases upon the stimulation of proinflammatory stimuli. The receptor of TNFSF18 is the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), which is a member of the TNFR superfamily. Engagement of TNFSF18 and GITR leads to T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. It also inhibits the suppressive function of T regulatory cells and induces macrophage activation. GITR-TNFSF18 interaction plays an essential role in the regulation of the immune response to self antigens and pathogens. In addition, this receptor-ligand interaction has been shown to modulate anti-tumor immunity.Product Details
- Human TNFSF18, amino acids (Glu74-Ser199) (Accession# NP_005083), was expressed in 293E cells with an N-terminal His tag.
- Molecular Mass
- The 147 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 16.5 kD. The protein migrates at about 25 kD in DTT-reducing conditions by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is His.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 1.0 EU per µg of protein as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size is lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- Human TNFSF18 (GITRL) binds to immobilized recombinant human TNFRSF18 (GITR) (Cat. No. 764302) in a dose-dependent manner. The ED50 for this effect is 5 – 20 ng/mL
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Macrophages, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and endothelial cells.
- TNFSF18 plays roles in regulating T cell activation and natural killer cell anti-tumor activity. It is induced by inflammatory processes.
- T cells.
- TNFSF18, when immobilized with anti-CD3 antibody, is able to inhibit the secretion of IFN-γ by activated T cells.
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Cell Proliferation and Viability, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Yu KY, et al. 2003. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310:433.
2. Kim JD, et al. 2003. Genes Immun. 4:564.
3. Azuma M. 2010. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 30:547.
4. Hanabuchi S, et al. 2006. Blood 107:3617.
5. Muriglan SJ, et al. 2004. J. Exp. Med. 200:149.
6. Shevach EM and Stephens GL. 2006. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6:613.
7. Baltz K, et al. 2007. FASEB J. 21:2442.
8. Placke T, et al. 2010. Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2010:239083.
- Gene ID
- 8995 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about TNFSF18 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.