- Other Names
- Growth/differentiation factor 3 (GDF3), Vg-related gene 2 (VGR-2)
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- Product Citations
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Growth-differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3), also named Vg-related gene 2 (VGR-2), is a member of the TGF-β superfamily of growth factors and is structally homologous to the members of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and growth differentiation factor (GDF) subfamily. GDF-3 is a bifunctional molecule in the TGF-β signaling pathway. GDF acts as an inhibitor for other TGF-β superfamily members including BMPs and also act as a Nodal-like ligand. GDF-3 participates in regulatory functions in embryogenesis and is considered a marker of embryonic stem cells. GDF-3 is involved in adipogenesis and is associated with obesity, since GDF-3 deficient mice show reduced accumulation of adipose tissue during a high fat diet. GDF-3 has been shown to inhibit growth of breast cancer cell lines and was frequently found to be downregulated in human breast cancer specimens, suggesting a role of GDF-3 in limiting the progression of human breast cancer.Product Details
- Human GDF-3, amino acids (Ala251 - Gly364) (Accession# NP_065685.1), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 114 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 13 kD. Recombinant human GDF-3 is a 26.0 kD non-disulfide-linked homodimer. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Ala.
- >98%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- Lyophilized, carrier-free.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.1 ng per µg of protein.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored at -20°C or -70°C. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in water to a concentration of 0.1-1.0 mg/ml. Do not vortex. It is recommended to further dilute in a buffer, such as 5% Trehalose, and store working aliquots at -20°C to -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 100 - 150 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 6.67 x 103 - 1.0 x 104 units/mg, as measured by its ability to inhibit induced alkaline phosphatase production by ATDC-5 chondrogenic cells in a dose dependent manner.
- GDF-3 is a secreted protein and is expressed in ossifying bone, brain, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and adipose tissue.
- GDF-3 is a bi-functional growth factor, modulating the balance between different TGF-β signaling pathways during embryonic development. GDF-3 also acts as an adipogenic cytokine.
- Embryonic stem cells and adipocytes.
- ALK4, ActRIIB, and Cripto.
- GDF-3 is able to inhibit induced alkaline phosphatase production by ATDC-5 chondrogenic cells.
- Cell Type
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Apoptosis/Tumor Suppressors/Cell Death, Cell Biology, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Ferland-McCollough D, et al. 2012. Cell. Death Differ. 19:1003.
2. Wang W, et al. 2004. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 321:1024.
3. McPherron AC and Lee SJ. et al. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:3444.
4. Ye M, et al. 2010. Hum. Mol. Genet. 19:287.
5. Chacón-Camacho O, et al. 2012. Eur. J. Med. Genet. 55:414.
6. Li Q, et al. 2012. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 138:1073.
- Gene ID
- 9573 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about GDF-3 on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.