Epiregulin was initially identified as a growth-inhibitory factor from the conditioned medium of the murine tumor cell line NIH3T3/clone T7. It belongs to the EGF family of proteins that includes EGF, TGF-α, heparin-binding EGF like-growth factor (HB-EGF), epigen, epiregulin, betacellulin, neuroregulin, and tomoregulin. It posesses 24-50% amino acid sequence identity with sequences of other EGF-related growth factors. All the EGF family members are synthesized as type I membrane protein precursors, which can undergo proteolytic cleavage at the plasma membrane to release a mature soluble ectodomain. Epiregulin acts as an autocrine growth factor in human epidermal keratinocytes, and it can be induced by HB-EGF, amphiregulin, and TGF-α. Epiregulin is expressed by, and plays a key role in, immune-related responses of keratinocytes and tissue resident macrophages. It has been shown that epiregulin-deficient (EP-/-) mice develop chronic dermatitis. Also, epiregulin is involved in proinflammatory cytokine production in bone marrow-derived macrophages. In addition, epiregulin induces proliferation of human corneal epithelial cells and its expression can be induced in these cells by TGF-α, HB-EGF, AR, and EGF. Epiregulin plays a role in the development of hyperkeratosis during the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma, and it is overexpressed in psoriatic epidermis. Epiregulin polymorphisms seem to be associated with susceptibility to different clinical phenotypes of TB, and epiregulin modulates the innate immune responses of TB.Product Details
- Human Epiregulin, amino acids Met-(Val63-Leu108) (Accession# NM_001432), was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 47 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 5.4 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced protein migrate at approximately 6 kD and 8 kD, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. The predicted N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2.
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 0.5 - 3.0 ng/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 0.33 - 2.0 x 106 units/mg, as determined by induction of BALB/3T3 cell proliferation.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Product Citations
- Macrophages, placenta, carcinoma cells, aorta vascular smooth muscle cells, keratinocytes, granulosa cells, and cholesteatoma fibroblasts.
- Epiregulin regulates cell differentiation, growth, and homeostasis. It induces proliferation of smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Epiregulin is induced by angiotensin II (AII), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and α-thrombin (α-Thr) in vascular smooth muscle cells.
- Fibroblasts, hepatocytes, aorta vascular smooth muscle cells, and epithelial cells.
- EGFR (ErbB1) and ErbB4.
- Cell Type
- Neural Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors, Embryonic Stem Cells
- Biology Area
- Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Growth Factors, Cytokines/Chemokines
- Antigen References
1. Taylor DS, 1999. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1633.
2. Shirasawa S, et al. 2004. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:13921.
3. Sugiyama S, et al. 2005. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 337:271.
4. Shirakata Y, et al. 2007. J. Dermatol. Sci. 45:69.
5. Morita S, et al. 2007. Mol. Vis. 13:2119.
6. Thuong NT, et al. 2012. Genes Immun. 13:275.
7. Yoshikawa M, et al. 2013. PLoS One 8(6): e66725.
- Gene ID
- 2069 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about Epiregulin on UniProt.org
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.