- Regulatory Status
- Other Names
- Colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, CSF-Î±, Pluripoietin-Î±, Eosinophil colony stimulating factor (Eo-CSF), Burst promoting activity (BPA)
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- Product Citations
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Csf2 is the gene that encodes GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), which is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, cow, mouse, and rat. GM-CSF plays a key role in signaling emergency hemopoiesis (predominantly myelopoiesis) in response to infection, including the production of granulocytes and macrophages in the bone marrow and their maintenance, survival, and functional activation at sites of injury or insult. The receptor for GM-CSF is a heterodimer that comprises a major binding subunit (GMRalpha) and a major signaling subunit (beta-c). The beta-c chain is a common subunit for GM-CSF, IL-3, and IL-5 receptors. The receptor subunits are always coexpressed on the surface of leukocytes, with beta-c being expressed at lower levels than GMRalpha. Certain nonhemopoietic cell types also express the GM-CSF receptor. GM-CSF has anti-apoptotic functions on neurons and is neuroprotective in animal stroke models. It stimulates neuronal differentiation of adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs). GM-CSF has been identified as a factor involved in arteriogenesis after brain ischemia. In addition, GM-CSF induces arteriogenic growth of collateral vessels after occlusion of cardiac or peripheral arteries.Product Details
- Rat GM-CSF, amino acids (Ala18-Lys144) (Accession# NM_053852) was expressed in E. coli.
- Molecular Mass
- The 128 amino acid recombinant protein has a predicted molecular mass of approximately 14.6 kD. The DTT-reduced and non-reduced proteins migrate at approximately 17 and 14 kD respectively by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid is Met.
- >95%, as determined by Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE.
- 0.22 µm filtered protein solution is in PBS, pH 7.2
- Endotoxin Level
- Less than 0.01 ng per µg cytokine as determined by the LAL method.
- 10 and 25 µg sizes are bottled at 200 µg/mL. 100 µg size and larger sizes are lot-specific and bottled at the concentration indicated on the vial (please contact technical support for concentration, or use our Lookup tool if you have a lot number.) Please note, new lots of the 100 µg size will be lot-specific and may differ from previous lots that had a fixed concentration.
- Storage & Handling
- Unopened vial can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to 2 weeks, at -20°C for up to six months, or at -70°C or colder until the expiration date. For maximum results, quick spin vial prior to opening. The protein can be aliquoted and stored at -20°C or colder. Stock solutions can also be prepared at 50 - 100 µg/mL in appropriate sterile buffer, carrier protein such as 0.2 - 1% BSA or HSA can be added when preparing the stock solution. Aliquots can be stored between 2°C and 8°C for up to one week and stored at -20°C or colder for up to 3 months. Avoid repeated freeze/thaw cycles.
- ED50 = 5 - 20 pg/ml, corresponding to a specific activity of 5 - 20 x 107 units/mg, as determined by induction of FDC-P1 cell proliferation.
- Application Notes
BioLegend carrier-free recombinant proteins provided in liquid format are shipped on blue-ice. Our comparison testing data indicates that when handled and stored as recommended, the liquid format has equal or better stability and shelf-life compared to commercially available lyophilized proteins after reconstitution. Our liquid proteins are verified in-house to maintain activity after shipping on blue ice and are backed by our 100% satisfaction guarantee. If you have any concerns, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Product Citations
T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, mast cells.
- GM-CSF, in conjuction with IL-3 and IL-5, regulates the production and functional activation of hemopoietic cells. GM-CSF acts on monocyte/macrophages and all granulocytes. GM-CSF is critical for dendritic cell development and maturation. GM-CSF is induced by LPS, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α, and inhibited by IL-10, IFN-γ, IL-4, cyclosporine A, and glucocorticoids.
- Granulocyte/macrophage/erythroid/megakaryocytic progenitors, myeloblasts, monoblasts, dendritic cells, T cells, endothelial cells, alveolar epithelial cells, neuroepithelial cells, adult neuronal stem cells, cortical neurons.
- Heterodimer GM-CSFR α subunit (CDw116) and β-subunit (CDw131).
- Cell Type
- Embryonic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic stem and progenitors
- Biology Area
- Immunology, Innate Immunity, Stem Cells
- Molecular Family
- Cytokines/Chemokines, Growth Factors
- Antigen References
1. Xing Z, et al. 1996. J. Clin. Invest 97:1102.
2. Schneeloch E, et al. 2004. PNAS 101:12730.
3. Hossmann KA and Buschmann IR. 2005. Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 5:1547.
4. Shi Y, et al. 2006. Cell Res. 16:126.
5. Kruger C, et al. 2007. BMC Neurosci. 8:88.
6. Schabitz WR, et al. 2008. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 28:29.
7. Hercus TR, et al. 2009. Blood 114:1289.
- Gene ID
- 116630 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about GM-CSF on UniProt.org
- Why choose BioLegend recombinant proteins?
• Each lot of product is quality-tested for bioactivity as indicated on the data sheet.
• Greater than 95% Purity or higher, tested on every lot of product.
• 100% Satisfaction Guarantee for quality performance, stability, and consistency.
• Ready-to-use liquid format saves time and reduces challenges associated with reconstitution.
• Bulk and customization available. Contact us.
• Learn more about our Recombinant Proteins.
- How does the activity of your recombinant proteins compare to competitors?
We quality control each and every lot of recombinant protein. Not only do we check its bioactivity, but we also compare it against other commercially available recombinant proteins. We make sure each recombinant protein’s activity is at least as good as or better than the competition’s. In order to provide you with the best possible product, we ensure that our testing process is rigorous and thorough. If you’re curious and eager to make the switch to BioLegend recombinants, contact your sales representative today!
- What is the specific activity or ED50 of my recombinant protein?
The specific activity range of the protein is indicated on the product datasheets. Because the exact activity values on a per unit basis can largely fluctuate depending on a number of factors, including the nature of the assay, cell density, age of cells/passage number, culture media used, and end user technique, the specific activity is best defined as a range and we guarantee the specific activity of all our lots will be within the range indicated on the datasheet. Please note this only applies to recombinants labeled for use in bioassays. ELISA standard recombinant proteins are not recommended for bioassay usage as they are not tested for these applications.
- Have your recombinants been tested for stability?
Our testing shows that the recombinant proteins are able to withstand room temperature for a week without losing activity. In addition the recombinant proteins were also found to withstand four cycles of freeze and thaw without losing activity.
- Does specific activity of a recombinant protein vary between lots?
Specific activity will vary for each lot and for the type of experiment that is done to validate it, but all passed lots will have activity within the established ED50 range for the product and we guarantee that our products will have lot-to-lot consistency. Please conduct an experiment-specific validation to find the optimal ED50 for your system.
- How do you convert activity as an ED50 in ng/ml to a specific activity in Units/mg?
- Use formula Specific activity (Units/mg) = 10e6/ ED50 (ng/mL)