- WM59 (See other available formats)
- Regulatory Status
- V P025
- Other Names
- PECAM-1, EndoCAM
- Mouse IgG1, κ
- Ave. Rating
- Submit a Review
- Product Citations
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CD31 is a 130-140 kD type I transmembrane glycoprotein also known as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) or Endocam. It is expressed on monocytes, platelets, granulocytes, endothelial cells and lymphocyte subsets. CD31 has been reported to bind CD38 and be involved in wound healing, angiogenesis, and cellular migration in an inflammatory situation.Product Details
- Verified Reactivity
- Human, Cynomolgus, Rhesus
- Reported Reactivity
- African Green, Baboon
- Antibody Type
- Host Species
- Phosphate-buffered solution, pH 7.2, containing 0.09% sodium azide and BSA (origin USA)
- The antibody was purified by affinity chromatography, and conjugated with PE under optimal conditions.
- Lot-specific (to obtain lot-specific concentration, please enter the lot number in our Concentration and Expiration Lookup or Certificate of Analysis online tools.)
- Storage & Handling
- The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. Do not freeze.
FC - Quality tested
SB - Reported in the literature, not verified in house
- Recommended Usage
Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by immunofluorescent staining with flow cytometric analysis. For flow cytometric staining, the suggested use of this reagent is 5 µl per million cells in 100 µl staining volume or 5 µl per 100 µl of whole blood.
- Excitation Laser
Blue Laser (488 nm)
Green Laser (532 nm)/Yellow-Green Laser (561 nm)
- Application Notes
Clone WM59 has been reported to recognize the D2 extracellular portion of CD31.
Additional reported applications (for the relevant formats) include: immunofluorescence microscopy2, immunohistochemical staining of acetone-fixed frozen tissue sections8, blocking of platelet aggregation3, and spatial biology (IBEX)11,12. Clone WM59 is not recommended for immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. The Ultra-LEAF™ purified antibody (Endotoxin < 0.01 EU/µg, Azide-Free, 0.2 µm filtered) is recommended for functional assays (Cat. No. 303143 & 303144).
The purified WM59 antibody is useful as a capture antibody for a sandwich ELISA assay, when used in conjunction with biotin anti-human CD31 antibody (Cat. No. 536604) antibody as the detection antibody.
- Additional Product Notes
Iterative Bleaching Extended multi-pleXity (IBEX) is a fluorescent imaging technique capable of highly-multiplexed spatial analysis. The method relies on cyclical bleaching of panels of fluorescent antibodies in order to image and analyze many markers over multiple cycles of staining, imaging, and, bleaching. It is a community-developed open-access method developed by the Center for Advanced Tissue Imaging (CAT-I) in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID, NIH).
(PubMed link indicates BioLegend citation)
- Schlossman S, et al. Eds. 1995. Leucocyte Typing V Oxford University Press. New York.
- Muczynski KA, et al. 2003. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 14:1336. (IF)
- Wu XW, et al. 1997. Arterioscl. Throm. Vas. 17:3154. (Block)
- Nagano M, et al. 2007. Blood 110:151. (FC) PubMed
- MacFadyen JR, et al. 2005. FEBS Lett. 579:2569. PubMed
- Yoshino N, et al. 2000. Exp. Anim. (Tokyo) 49:97. (FC)
- Sestak K, et al. 2007. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 119:21.
- Wicki A, et al. 2012. Clin. Cancer Res. 18:454. (FC, IHC) PubMed
- Oeztuerk-Winder F, et al. 2012. EMBO J. 31:3431. (FC) PubMed
- Bushway ME, et al. 2014. Biol Reprod. 90(5): 110 (IF) PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2020. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 117:33455-33465. (SB) PubMed
- Radtke AJ, et al. 2022. Nat Protoc. 17:378-401. (SB) PubMed
- Product Citations
AB_314331 (BioLegend Cat. No. 303105)
AB_314332 (BioLegend Cat. No. 303106)
- Ig superfamily, type I transmembrane glycoprotein, 130-140 kD
Monocytes, platelets, granulocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocyte subset
- Cell adhesion, signal transduction
- Cell Type
- Endothelial cells, Granulocytes, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Neutrophils, Platelets
- Biology Area
- Angiogenesis, Cell Adhesion, Cell Biology, Immunology, Neuroinflammation, Neuroscience
- Molecular Family
- Adhesion Molecules, CD Molecules
- Antigen References
- DeLisser H, et al. 1994. Immunol. Today 15:490.
- Newman P, 1997. J. Clin. Invest. 99:3.
- Fawcett J, et al. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 128:1229.
- Gene ID
- 5175 View all products for this Gene ID
- View information about CD31 on UniProt.org
- What type of PE do you use in your conjugates?
- We use R-PE in our conjugates.
- If an antibody clone has been previously successfully used in IBEX in one fluorescent format, will other antibody formats work as well?
It’s likely that other fluorophore conjugates to the same antibody clone will also be compatible with IBEX using the same sample fixation procedure. Ultimately a directly conjugated antibody’s utility in fluorescent imaging and IBEX may be specific to the sample and microscope being used in the experiment. Some antibody clone conjugates may perform better than others due to performance differences in non-specific binding, fluorophore brightness, and other biochemical properties unique to that conjugate.
- Will antibodies my lab is already using for fluorescent or chromogenic IHC work in IBEX?
Fundamentally, IBEX as a technique that works much in the same way as single antibody panels or single marker IF/IHC. If you’re already successfully using an antibody clone on a sample of interest, it is likely that clone will have utility in IBEX. It is expected some optimization and testing of different antibody fluorophore conjugates will be required to find a suitable format; however, legacy microscopy techniques like chromogenic IHC on fixed or frozen tissue is an excellent place to start looking for useful antibodies.
- Are other fluorophores compatible with IBEX?
Over 18 fluorescent formats have been screened for use in IBEX, however, it is likely that other fluorophores are able to be rapidly bleached in IBEX. If a fluorophore format is already suitable for your imaging platform it can be tested for compatibility in IBEX.
- The same antibody works in one tissue type but not another. What is happening?
Differences in tissue properties may impact both the ability of an antibody to bind its target specifically and impact the ability of a specific fluorophore conjugate to overcome the background fluorescent signal in a given tissue. Secondary stains, as well as testing multiple fluorescent conjugates of the same clone, may help to troubleshoot challenging targets or tissues. Using a reference control tissue may also give confidence in the specificity of your staining.
- How can I be sure the staining I’m seeing in my tissue is real?
In general, best practices for validating an antibody in traditional chromogenic or fluorescent IHC are applicable to IBEX. Please reference the Nature Methods review on antibody based multiplexed imaging for resources on validating antibodies for IBEX.
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Compare Data Across All Formats
This data display is provided for general comparisons between formats.
Your actual data may vary due to variations in samples, target cells, instruments and their settings, staining conditions, and other factors.
If you need assistance with selecting the best format contact our expert technical support team.
FITC anti-human CD31
PE anti-human CD31
Purified anti-human CD31
Alexa Fluor® 488 anti-human CD31
Alexa Fluor® 647 anti-human CD31
Pacific Blue™ anti-human CD31
APC anti-human CD31
PE/Cyanine7 anti-human CD31
APC/Cyanine7 anti-human CD31
Brilliant Violet 605™ anti-human CD31
Brilliant Violet 421™ anti-human CD31
Purified anti-human CD31 (Maxpar® Ready)
Alexa Fluor® 594 anti-human CD31
PE/Dazzle™ 594 anti-human CD31
PerCP/Cyanine5.5 anti-human CD31
Alexa Fluor® 700 anti-human CD31
Brilliant Violet 711™ anti-human CD31
TotalSeq™-A0124 anti-human CD31
TotalSeq™-C0124 anti-human CD31
APC/Fire™ 750 anti-human CD31
Ultra-LEAF™ Purified anti-human CD31
TotalSeq™-B0124 anti-human CD31
Brilliant Violet 785™ anti-human CD31
PE/Cyanine5 anti-human CD31
TotalSeq™-D0124 anti-human CD31